Characterization and Identification of Probiotic Features in Lacticaseibacillus Paracasei Using a Comparative Genomic Analysis ApproachRevista : Probiotics and Antimicrobial Proteins
Volumen : 14
Número : 6
Páginas : 1211-1224
Tipo de publicación : ISI Ir a publicación
Lacticaseibacillus paracasei species are widely used for their health-promoting properties in food and agricultural applications. These bacteria have been isolated from various habitats such as the oral cavity, cereals, vegetables, meats, and dairy products conferring them the ability to consume different carbohydrates. Two subspecies are recognized, Lacticaseibacillus paracasei subsp. paracasei and Lacticaseibacillus paracasei subsp. tolerans according to their acid production from carbohydrates. Some strains are currently used as probiotics. In this study, we performed a comparative genomic analysis of 181 genomes of the Lacticaseibacillus paracasei species to reveal genomic differences at the subspecies level and to reveal adaptive and probiotic features, and special emphasis is given to inulin consumption. No clear distinction at the subspecies level for L. paracasei was shown using a phylogenetic tree with orthologous genes from the core-genome set. In general, a good correlation was observed between genomic distance and isolation origin, suggesting that L. paracasei strains are adapted to their natural habitat, giving rise to genetic differences at the genomic level. A low frequency of undesirable characteristics such as plasmids, prophages, antibiotic resistance genes, absence of virulence factors, and frequent bacteriocin production supports these species being good candidates for use as probiotics. Lastly, we found that the inulin gene cluster in L. paracasei strains seems to differ slightly in the presence or absence of some genes but maintains a core defined by at least three fructose-PTS proteins, one hypothetical protein, and extracellular ?-fructosidase. Finally, we conclude that further work has to be done for L. paracasei subspecies classification. Improving outgroup selection criteria is a key factor for their correct subspecies assignation.