Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile
Leiva-Valenzuela G.A., Quilaqeo M., Lagos D., Estay D. and Pedreschi F. (2018)

Effect of formulation and baking conditions on the structure and development of non-enzymatic browning in biscuit models using images

Revista : Journal of Food Science and Technology
Volumen : 55
Número : 4
Páginas : 1234-1243
Tipo de publicación : ISI Ir a publicación


The aim of this research was to determine the effect of composition (dietary fiber = DF, fat = F, and gluten = G) and baking time on the target microstructural parameters that were observed using images of potato and
wheat starch biscuits. Microstructures were studied Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). Non-enzymatic browning (NEB) was assessed using color image analysis.
Texture and moisture analysis was performed to have a better understanding of the baking process. Analysis of images revealed that the starch granules retained their native form at the end of baking, suggesting their in complete gelatinization. Granules size was similar at several
different baking times, with an average equivalent diameter of 9 and 27 lm for wheat and potato starch, respectively. However, samples with different levels of DF and G increased circularity during baking to more than
30%, and also increasing hardness. NEB developed during baking, with the maximum increase observed between 13 and 19 min. This was reflected in decreased luminosity (L*) values due to a decrease in moisture levels. After
19 min, luminosity did not vary significantly. The ingredients that are used, as well as their quantities, can affect sample L* values. Therefore, choosing the correct ingredients and quantities can lead to different microstructures
in the biscuits, with varying amounts of NEB products.